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 شرح قواعد الفصل الاول 2

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عدد الرسائل: 289
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تاريخ التسجيل: 30/08/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: شرح قواعد الفصل الاول 2   الجمعة سبتمبر 12, 2008 8:30 pm

Modals

Shall :

1- Intention : نية
I shall visit Rafah tomorrow .

2- Offer to help :عرض خدمة أو مساعدة
Shall I carry your bag for you ?

3- Suggestion اقتراح
Shall we go out this evening

4- Promise : الوعد
I shall get your money back


2- Will :

1- For future time : للتعبير عن المستقبل
They say that it will rain tomorrow .

2- For Prediction للتوقع التنبؤ
He left an hour ago, so he'll be at home by now \

3- For Quick decision للقرار السريع
That bag looks heavy . " I will help you with it "

4- For promise :للوعد
I will phone you as soon as I arrive

5- For Invitation للدعوة
Will you have dinner with us ?

6- For Request للطلب
Will you telephone me later,please?

3- Should

1- For opinions / supposition :تنبه
He should be at the meeting now

2- For advise /recommend للنصح
You should pay your debts
Students shouldn’t tell jokes in the class

3- for Undesirable possibility
تاتي بعد احتمال غير مرغوب فيه
for fear that , so that ,lest

He works hard lest he should fail
The door was locked so that no one should get out

4- Would :
1- For imagining situation :تخيل موقف
It would be nice to have a party here one weekend

2- Wishing تمني
I wish the rain would stop

3-Invitation دعوة
Would you like to come to dinner ?

4- Polite Request طلب
Would you mind waiting a moment please?

5- Preference تفضيل
I'd rather have tea than coffee

6- Willingness or agreement الاستعداد والموافقة
I should buy the car if he would sell it

7- Refusing رفض
He wouldn't give me back the book

5- Can

1- For having the ability or skill للقدرة
She can speak French
I can travel abroad alone

2- With verbs of senses مع أفعال الحس والإدراك
I'm looking at him and I can see him
I can smell something burning
Can you remember where they live?

3- Possibility إمكانية
A poor man can become rich.
It can rain in summer

4- Permission تقديم إذن
You can drive a car if you have a license .

5- Asking Permission طلب إذن
Can I use your pen ,please?

6-Requesting : طلب
Can you bring me my bag, please?

6- Could
1- Past tense of can : الماضي من
I can't run now , but I could run when I was young

2- Request طلب
Could you show me the way to the post office ,please?

3- Possibility إمكانية
Don’t strike the match near the baby. You could give him a burn

7- May

1- Probability احتمالية
He may come now
If you are careful, you may win

2- Wishing تمني
May we all meet again soon

8- Might

1- Doubt or very unlikely possibility احتمال ضئيل
Let's go to Ahmed ; he might be in

9- Must

1- Obligation ,necessity ,duty إلزام واجب وضرورة شديدة
- You must go now
- You mustn’t park here . ( probation تحريم

10- Ought to

1- Necessity ضرورة
He ought to work harder than he does
I asked him how much I ought to pay

2- Duty واجب
You ought to obey your parents

Read this sentence and try to add one of the words between brackets.
I study hard, (must, might,should,could,may.have to, can ect.) Then it becomes. I…………………study hard. These are called modal verbs.

In a way of introducing the verb's valuablity and importance
هذه الكلمات تقدم لنا الفعل بدرجه من الأهمية أو ألاحتماليه التي يطلبها المعنى في ألجمله

1-can/can't/could couldn't expressing
A- rules B- abilities C- un abilities.
You can't carry the ball in volleyball. rule
It's light, you can carry it. ability

2-shall/shan't/should/shouldn't expressing good or bad.
You should help the poor. Good
You shouldn't eat much. bad

3-must/mstn't/need/needn'texpressing degree of necessity.
You must study hard. necessary She doesn't need to carry all her books. not necessary

4-may =50%
He may succeed this year.

5-might= less than 50%
He might succeed, but I'm not sure.






Relative Pronouns


Who- whom –whose- which- when- where
Who :

Is used to refer to people in the subject case : تستخدم في حالة الفاعل ويأتي بعدها فعل

1- The man who/that lives next door is a doctor
2- This the man who/that has a new red car


Which :

Is used to refer to things in the subject and object case :تستخدم في حالة الفاعل أو المفعول به

1- She ate the apples which were in the fridge
2- Maha wore the dress which she had bought yesterday

Whom :
- It is used to refer to people in the object case . تستخدم لعاقل في حال المفعول به
1- I visited the men whom I met last week in the party

Note:
- Whom is generally used only in very formal English
whom تعتبر جدا رسمية في الاستخدام ويمكن استبدالها ب who


Whose

- whose is used as an adjective indicating possession .تستخدم للدلالة على الملكية
- Whose usually modifies people but it may also used to modify things
ملكية سواء الأشخاص وغير العاقل

1- I know the man . His bicycle was stolen
I know the man whose bicycle was stolen

2- Mr. Fehmi has a painting . Its value is great .
Mr. Fehmi has a painting whose value is great .

Where :
- it is used to refer to place دلالة على المكان

1- The building is very old . He lives there ( in that building)
The building where he lives is very old .

2- My grandfather has a nice garden where he grows flowers


When :للدلالة على الزمان
- It is used to refer to time .

I'll never forget the day . I met you then ( on that day)
1- I'll never forget the day when I met you

2- Ramadan is a special time when we fast



Indefinite Articles : A - An

Indefinite articles are used before indefinite, countable and singular nouns
المعدود.يستخدم قبل الاسم المفرد

Ex: a book - a pen - a room .

a = An : before a vowel (a-e-i-o-u) قبل الاسم الذي يبدأ بحرف علة
An apple - an engineer - an egg .

Use: استخداماتها

1. Naming a profession:
She is an artist.
He is a student.

2. Making a general statement
A bank account can provide a good means of saving money.
A good pair of scissors should be used for cutting cloth.

3. Referring to something not mentioned before
Where can I find a telephone?

4. A or An with the meaning of Per
once a week
two dollars a dozen
four times a year

Use "a" or "an" with a singular count noun when you mean "one of many,"
"any," "in general."
· Bob is a student (one of many students).
· I like a good movie (one of many movies).

Use "a" or "an" the first time you use a noun in a paragraph
· I saw a movie last night.
· A man ran into the street.

Use "a" or "an" if the title is not a specific title.
· a president
· a doctor
· a queen

Use a/an for non-specific geographical places:
· an ocean
· a river
· a sea
· a desert
· a lake
· a city
· a state
· a country
· a continent

Use a/an if you write about a non-specific building or monument.
· a building
· a museum
· an institution

Use a/an for non-specific colleges or schools.
· a school
· a university

Use a/an for non-specific buildings
· a dorm
· an office





Asking for Permission and Responding الطلب والرد على الطلب

Asking for Permission: طلب اذن

May I
Can I + infinitive ………..,please?
Could

Giving Permission: تقديم اذن

• Yes, of course طبعا
• Sure بالتأكيد
• Certainly بالتأكيد
• Help yourself تفضل
• Here you are تفضل
• Go ahead تفضل

Refusing Permission: رفض الطلب

• Sorry , I need it myself
• I'm deeply sorry. أنا آسف جدا
• Well. I'm using it at the moment. أسف، ولكني استخدمه الآن

• Write what would you say in each of the following situations:
1. You would like to borrow your friend's book.
……………………………………………………………………………………..
2. You want your younger brother to switch on the light
……………………………………………………………………………………..
3. You want the teacher to let you leave early.
…………………………………………………………………………………….
4. Your friend wants to borrow your camera but you need it.
……………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Your neighbour wants to use your computer and you agree.
…………………………………………………………………………………….

Match

A B
1- You want to use your friend's telephone
2- Your friend wants to borrow your pen and you agree
3- You would like your brother to post a letter for you.
4- Your friend wants to borrow your bike but you need it
5- You ask for your father's permission to go to the cinema. 1- Go ahead
2- Sorry, I need it myself.
3- May I go to the cinema?
4-Could you post the letter for me please.
5- Coul
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عدد الرسائل: 1198
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تاريخ التسجيل: 27/08/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: شرح قواعد الفصل الاول 2   السبت سبتمبر 13, 2008 5:24 am

شكرا كتييير
قمر الزمان
وانت عضو اكتر من رائع
وبنتمنالك كلل خير
مع تحيات :-
الادارة

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معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://my-school.ahlamontada.net
 

شرح قواعد الفصل الاول 2

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