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تاريخ التسجيل : 30/08/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: شرح قواعد الفصل الاول   الجمعة سبتمبر 12, 2008 6:29 pm

Will & going to are used to express the Future
يستخدم كلاهما للتعبير عن المستقبل

a- Will

• Form:


Will + infinitive ( without to)


Ex : They will travel to Paris next year .
Negative : They won't travel to Paris next year
Question : will they travel to Paris next year ?

• Usage :

1- To express a future decision or intention ( quick decision)
للتعبير عن نية بدون تخطيط مسبق

Ex : Which one do you want? The blue or the red ?
I'll take the red

2- To express a prediction للتعبير عن شيء أنت تتوقع حدوثه
Ex : we will use robots in all houses in 2020

3- To express an offer :لتقديم عرض
Ex : I'll carry your suitcase .

4- To express promise : للوعد
Ex : He promises he will phone everyday

5- To make a threat : للتهديد
EX: If you don’t behave well , I’ll tell your father

6- Request :للطلب
Will you open the door for me , please ?


b- Going to

• Form:



am
is + going to
are


Ex : We are going to work together
Negative: We aren’t going to work together
Question : Are you going to work together?

• Usage :

1- to express a future decision or intention or plan made before
للتعبير عن نية أو قرار مخطط له مسبقا
EX : they are going to buy a new car .

2- to express a prediction you feel it must happen (There is evidence) للتعبير عن شيء أنت متأكد من حدوثه لوجود دليل
Ex : Look at the clouds! It's going to rain

Exercise
A- Choose the Correct Answer :
1- My suitcase is so heavy! Give it to me. (I'll –I'm going to) carry it for you.
2- I bought some warm boots because I ( I'll go – I'm going) skiing.
3- "Tony's back from holiday." "Is he? I ( I'll – I'm going to) give him a ring."
4- We ('ll –'re going to) see "Hamlet" at the Royal Shakespeare tonight.The tickets were very expensive.
5- You can tell me your secret. I (won't – am not going to) tell anyone else.
6- I need to get these letters in the post as soon as possible"
"I ('ll go – 'm going) shopping now. I ('ll – 'm going to) post them for you.
7- Where (will you go – are you going )on holiday this year? "Turkey. What about you?
- " We don't know yet .Maybe we (will go – are going to) Spain.
8- " I haven’t got enough money to get home"
I ('ll – 'm going to) lend you some, if you like. How much do you want?
"Two pounds is enough. I ('ll – 'm going to) give it back tomorrow."
9- "Dad, can you sew on a button for me?"
"I can't sew. Ask Mum. She ('ll – is going to) to do it for you.
10- " Why are you working so hard these days?"
"Because ('ll – 'm going to) buy a car, so I'm saving as much as I can






Reflexive pronouns: الضمائر الانعكاسية
Uses: استخداماتها
Reflexive pronouns are often used when the action described by the verb is directed toward the thing referred to by the subject of the verb

. تستخدم الضمائر الانعكاسية لوصف فعل يعود على الفاعل من الفعل في نفس الجملة

This use of reflexive pronouns is illustrated in the following examples. The reflexive pronouns are underlined.

- I washed myself thoroughly before putting on clean clothes.

- Did you hurt yourself?

- Reflexive pronouns can also be used when it is desired to emphasize a personal pronoun.

تستخدم الضمائر الانعكاسية ايضا للتاكيد

The reflexive pronouns in the following examples are underlined.

-. I myself saw what happened.

- Did he solve the problem himself?


- She did the work herself.



Subjective Case Reflexive Pronoun
I
myself
you
yourself للمفرد
heـ
himself
she
herself
it
itself
we ـ
ourselves
you
yourselves للجمع
they
themselves








Unit Three : Language One



Past Simple: At one particular time in the past, these happened. It began and ended in the
لحدث بدا وانتهى في الماضي past.

:يستخدم : The past simple is used
-For a finished action or state in the past
حدث او حالة انتهت في الماضي(completed actions in the past:)
Examples:
- My brother got a new job in Madrid last week.
- Shakespeare died in 1616.

- عادات منتهية في الماضي - To talk about habits in the past:
Examples:
- We always had roast beef on Sundays when I was a boy.
- We never went abroad for our holidays until the 1970s.

سلسلة من الاحداث تتابعت في الماضي : - To talk about events that happened one after the other
Example:
He jumped out of bed, ran into the bathroom and slammed the door.


كلمات داله على الزمن Key Words:



Yesterday – last – ago- in the past -once upon a time

: شكل الفعل Form

قاعدي 1- Regular Verb:

I
You
He
She played tennis yesterday
They
We

2- Irregular Verb:شاذة) )غير قاعدي

I
You
He
She went to the sea last week
They
We

Example:
1- I watched television last night.
· Negative (I didn’t watch television last night)
· Question ( Did you watch television last night ?)


2- Present perfect مضارع تام

استخداماته: Uses
For an action in the past (usually recent) that affects the present=
-.حدث بدا في الماضي وتاثيره مستمر للحاضر

=For a state in the time from past to present حدث استمر من الماضي لغاية الحاضر

For an action (with no date) in the time from past to present.=
- حدث غير محدد وقته من الماضي لحاضر


Key Words: كلمات داله على الزمن


Since – For – just – Yet – Ever – Never – Recently – Already – lately

Examples:
I have lived in Riyadh for six years/ since 1995
· Negative (I haven't visited him for six years /since 1995.)
1- Ahmad has already finished his homework.
2- Have you ever been to London?
3- I have never been to London

شكل الفعل Form


I
You
They + have + pp
We


He
She + has + pp
It



Present perfect / past simple

Both the present perfect and the past simple are used to talk about past time The difference is in whether is a connection to the present.
كلاهما يستخدم للتعبير عن أحداث ماضية باختلافات بسيطة

1- The present perfect, unlike the past simple, expresses a connection to the present
:المضارع التام له علاقة بالحاضر


1- I haven’t seen the Palestinian exhibit

( implies connection to present )
(The exhibit is still there and I can go)

2- I didn’t see the Palestinian exhibit
(implies lack of present connection)
(The exhibit is finished and I can’t go)

2-If a past action continues to the present, use the present perfect, not the past simple
اذا استمر الحدث لغاية الحاضر نستخدم المضارع البسيط

1- I have taught for 10 years. ( I still teach)
2- I taught for 10 years. (I don’t teach anymore)

3-If a past action can’t occur again, use past simple, not present perfect:
اذا الحدث لن يتكرر مرة اخرى في الحاضر نستخدم الماضي البسيط

1- Shakespeare wrote many Novels.
(he is dead. He can’t write anymore novels)
2- Demy Moore has written many movies.
(She can write more movies in the future)


4-If an action happened at a specified time, use the past simple. The present perfect can only be used to talk about actions that happened at unspecified time:
اذا تحدد موعد الحدث في وقت محدد في الماضي نستخدم الماضي البسيط
1-I went to France in 1991
2-When Omar moved here, he got a new job.


Exercise

Present perfect or Past simple

1- She (studies – has studied – have studied) Spanish and Greek when she was at universtiy.

2- When I (were- have been – was) a kid my dad used to cook wonderful meals.

3- (Did you see – Have you seen – Do you see) any good films recently?

4- Nada (had – has had – have had) a flight with her boyfriend last week.

5- The population of India (has increased – have increased – increased) since 1992.
1
6- The Titanic (has sunk – sank – have sunk) in 1912.

7- Sohail (have fallen – has fallen – fell) off his bike three times this month.

8- When Ali was a child, he (lived – has lived – have lived) in Nablus.

9- Who (wrote – has written – have written)that lovely poem?

10- Ouch! I (cut – have cut – has cut) my finger.

Exercises:
Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect or past simple).
1. The storm ________( destroy ) the sandcastle that we____________ (build)

2. He________ (not / be) to Jerusalem before 1997.

3. When she____ ( go ) out to play, she__________ (do / already) her homework.

4. My brother______( eat ) all of the cake that our mum ______________(make).

5. The doctor ________ ( remove ) the plaster that he _________(put on) six weeks before.


6. The waiter _________ (bring ) a drink that I__________ (not / order)

7. I could not remember the poem we ______________(learn) the week before.

8. The children ________ (collect) the fruit that __________(fall) from the tree.

9. He ___________( phone) me before he ____ ( go ) to see her in London?

10. She___________ (not / write) a letter before that day.





Tag Questions:
Questions Tags are mini questions we add at the end of a sentence
We use it: :: تستخدم في نهاية الجملة لغرض أسئلة مذيلة
1- to check that the listeners agrees with you .التأكيد
2- to ask a real question سؤال حقيقي

Form : auxiliary or modal + subject pronoun
عبارة عن : فعل مساعد + ضمير فاعل

Negative sentence _____________ positive question tag

You aren’t a student , are you ?

Positive sentence ______________ negative question tag

You are a student , are'nt you ?


· Group A : there is an auxiliary or modal verb : في حال وجود فعل مساعد

1. You didn’t see him , did you ?

2. Rana can't swim, can she ?

3. He was there, wasn’t he ?

4. Nader hasn't come yet, has he ?

5. Ali and Maher will come to our house, won't they ?

6. They have got a new car, haven’t they ?


· Group B : There isn’t an auxiliary or modal verb : (don’t – doesn’t – didn’t )
في حال عدم وجود فعل مساعد نستخدم
1. They help you, don’t they?

2. Maha helps you, doesn’t she ?

3. Amira helped you, didn’t she ?

4. Tamer runs fast, doesn’t he ?

5. They work hard, don’t they ?

6. She sang songs, didn’t she ?




d I use your telephone?
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